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natalitius, -a, -um adj 1. of or pertaining to Christmas C142/12; OX79/26, etc; 1. nt pl as sbst the Christmas season, Christmas time C391/12; OX94/9, etc; see also feria, festum

natiuitas, -atis n f literally birth: 1. alone IC49/39; OX67/8, etc, or with Christi C330/12; OX81/29, etc, or Domini OX31/22, etc; SM424/15, or dominica CR503/23-4 Christmas, the Christmas season; aurora natiuitatis Domini the dawn of Christmas day LI111/6; 2. Natiuitas sancti Iohannis Baptistae the Nativity of St John the Baptist, 24 June CH110/28-9m; OX5/23; W462/15; see also dies, festum, octabe, septimana, terminus, uigilia

Nauerina, -e n f possibly a form of 'Nauarra,' Navarre, a Spanish kingdom SX183/24

nauiculus, -i n m literally small ship, boat, here ~ No(i)e Noah's little ship, a model representing Noah's ark, used in a procession LI27/12, etc; nauicula LI33/12, etc; nouicula LI34/5

nauis, -is n f 1. literally ship LI607/11; 2. model representing a ship LI79/25, etc; 3. in idiom ~ ecclesie nave of a church, main central body of a church building between the chancel and the west doors LI105/39, etc; W348/23

nauticus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to the navy, naval OX489/31

Nazarenus, -a, -um adj of or belonging to Nazareth, a village of Judea, Nazarene EK26/2

Nazianzus, -i n m Nazianzus, a city in Cappadocia; see Gregorius

Neapolitanus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to Naples C113/4

Neapolum, -i n nt kingdom of Naples EK779/22, etc

necessarius, -a, -um adj necessary, needful CH843/23; de necessario of necessity CH56/33

necuerunt var of necauerunt (by false analogy from alternate sg form necuit) [OLD neco]

negociator, -oris n m merchant, trader EK828/1

negocior, -ari, -atus sum v intr to be busy with, to be occupied in SH119/37; SX185/8

negocium, -ii n nt (legal) business, lawsuit BR3/22; EL210/24

nephandus, -a, -um adj for nefandus [OLD]

Neptunus, -i n m Neptune, Roman god of the sea, presented (with a mix of real and invented mythological attributes) as the overlord of the kingdom of beans OX799/6; see also regnum, rex

nerfus var of neruus [OLD]

neuma, -atis n nt literally a musical note or phrase or a form of musical notation, here by extension a piece of music, music WL60/8 [see DML neuma and OEDO neume]

niger, nigra, nigrum adj black; see custos, panis

Noa, -(i)e n m Noah, the OT patriarch who, according to Gen 6-9, built the ark and thereby saved himself, his family, and all the species of the world's non-aquatic animals when the rest of mankind was destroyed in the flood LI27/12, etc

nobilis, -e adj 1. illustrious, noble C579/26; EK204/25; OX56/7, etc; 2. m as sbst A. a noble or distinguished person LI129/19; hence B. nobleman, peer C352/16, etc; EK204/9, etc; OX218/5, etc; 3. nt sg as sbst noble, a coin most commonly valued at 6s 8d although it could be worth as much as 10s OX45/36, etc [see OEDO noble adj. and n.1 B.2.a]

noctanter adv at night, by night OX8/30, etc

nocturnus, -a, -um adj 1. of or pertaining to night EK537/7; WL216/18, etc; 2. nt sg as sbst nocturn(s): A. nocturns, the night office: it may refer to part of matins which, despite its name, was said at night, or collectively to matins and lauds, which were said consecutively at night or early in the morning EK24/14; WL216/26; the occurrence at H113/32-3 clearly represents the former usage, those at H112/38 and H113/17 are ambiguous; see also hora; B. nocturn, one of the seven parts into which the Psalter was divided according to tradition by St Jerome LI347/24 [OEDO nocturn n. 2]

nocumentum, -i n nt injury, hurt, harm CH68/29; OX64/38, etc; W451/32; nocuementum SM376/37

nodus, -i n m knot; see Gordianus

nomen, -inis n nt 1. a name EL22/22; L75/23; as evoked in prayer EL18/35, etc; 2. in idiom de nomine Iesu the name of a feast day, the feast of the Holy Name or the Name of Jesus, 7 August EL43/16, etc; 3. first name, forename L75/24

nomyny var of nomine [OLD nomen]

nonus, -a, -um adj 1. literally ninth CH220/14, etc; OX332/30, etc; SM148/16, etc; 2. f sg as sbst nine o'clock CH227/36; or noon SM183/2 (also hora nona OX5/17; SM178/5); this shift in meaning resulted from a change in religious practice whereby the prayers appointed for the third, sixth, and ninth hours of the day came to be said together at midday [see ODCC under TERCE]; 3. f pl as sbst None, -arum the nones, the fifth, or (in March, May, July, and October) the seventh, day of a month, so called because it is the ninth day before the ides: in the Roman dating system, all other days of a month were designated by counting backwards from three fixed points, its nones, its ides (the thirteenth or fifteenth day), and the calends, or first day, of the following month EL245/5, etc

Nordouolgius, -a, -um adj of or from Norfolk C842/21

Norffolkia, -e n f Norfolk: 1. name of a county C327/31; 2. name of a dukedom Norfolchia C31/19; Norfoxia SH197/12

norit, norunt contractions of nouerit and nouerunt [OLD nosco]

Northantona, -ae n f Northampton, name of an earldom OX313/6

Northfolcia, -e n f Norfolk, name of a dukedom OX70/18; Northffolchia EK344/26; Northfolkia EK824/27

Northumberlondia, -e n f Northumberland, the name of an earldom EK620/8; Northhumbrelandia LI79/14

Northumbria, -e n f Northumberland, the name of an earldom C75/26, etc; EK84/2; Northhumbria W405/39

Norwagiensis, -is sbst m Norwegian, Norseman WL10/27

Northwicus, -i n m Northwich, a town in Cheshire CH722/35, etc

Norwicensis, -is n f Norwich, name of a city C217/10

notacio, -onis n f act of providing (musical) notation or the notation itself LI332/23, etc; OX47/3

notarius, -a, -um adj well-known WL217/13 [var of DML notorius]

notarius, -ii n m notary, person authorized to draw up and attest to various public and legal documents, thus giving such documents an authoritative status at law; often notaries served as registrars of ecclesiastical courts C301/11, etc; EK947/1, etc; H71/18, etc; WL218/5; notarius publicus EL210/22, etc; LI58/25, etc; OX259/22; SM140/2; SX38/31, etc

Notinghamia, -ae n f Nottingham, name of an earldom OX313/6

noto, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. to note, make note of EK746/4; EL16/27c, etc; SM185/26; 2. to report, ie, to a church court about a canonical offence EK19/12. etc; EL53/36; H167/30, etc; SH22/42, etc; SM77/32, etc; WL235/25

notorie adv 1. in a well-known manner CH768/14, etc; EL184/14; SX38/30; 2. infamously, notoriously BR5/20

notorius, -a, -um adj well-known C333/14; CH71/4, etc; EL179/41, etc; SM175/4, etc; hence notorious EK307/38, etc

notula, -e n f literally (musical) note, hence in coll pl melody, tune WL57/22

nouellum, -i n nt delicacy, treat SH171/40

nouicula see nauiculus

nouiter adv 1. newly, anew EK974/13, etc; 2. recently WL13/33

nouus, -a, -um adj new LI27/19, etc; see burgus, castrum, de

nox, -ctis n f 1. literally night, night-time C25/14, etc; CR489/22; EK24/8, etc; OX5/25, etc; SH264/26, etc; W396/6; see also medius; 2. the eve of a feast day, so called from the liturgical convention of beginning the observance of a holy day at sunset on the previous day C37/26, etc; SH133/4, etc; noctes solemnes solemn eves, ie, the eves of principal feasts OX28/33;



  1. nox Marie Magdalene (St) Mary Magdalen's Eve, 21 July CR491/18, etc;

  2. nox Pasche Easter Eve SM249/1;

  3. nox sancti Iohannis St John's Eve, either 26 December (St John the Evangelist) or 23 June (St John the Baptist) OX57/10;

  4. while nox Epiphanie W399/27 refers to Epiphany Eve or Twelfth Night, an expression such as in die Epiphanie in nocte C59/9 indicates the evening of the day itself rather than its eve

nugacitas, -atis n f frivolous behaviour, frivolity or triviality: it is unclear which sense should be preferred at CH36/12; LI103/16

nullatenus adv by no means EL19/14; LI103/25, etc; SH265/40; SM239/14; WL216/15, etc; nullatinus LI342/36; W348/29[OLD tenus2]

nullo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr annul, make void SH200/28m

numeratus, -a, -um pfp pass (of money) counted out, put down (in payment); see denarius, pecunia

numerositas, -atis n f abundance, large number LI608/2

nunc adv 1. literally now EL25/39, etc; IC97/4; 2. used as quasi-adj current, present CH616/7, etc; EL128/1, etc; IC24/31, etc; LI609/4, etc

nuncius, -i n m 1. messenger, servant, possibly groom C296/30; CH858/23; EK307/40m, etc; H189/12; LI189/15?; SH129/25; SX182/7, etc; W417/26; 2. hence alone LI112/162, or with communis LI112/161, town crier; 3. A. spokesman, representative (of a group) L75/14; LI189/15?; B. legal representative, proctor LI338/2, etc

nundina, -e n f fair C267/27; coll pl C547/22?; EK824/9-11c, etc; EL245/24, etc; LI606/37, etc; SH154/11

nuptus, -a, -um adj married, not single SM176/10, etc

O

obediencia, -e n f obedience, here used with special reference to the obedience owed ecclesiastical laws and canons or to one's ecclesiastical superiors CR504/32; DR247/34; EK308/25, etc; El16/9; H98/30, etc; LI103/22; SH5/38; SM174/33; WL217/25; see also presto



obediencialiter adv obediently OX3/12

obfuscatus, -a, -um pfp pass darkened, obscured LI332/37

obiectio, -onis n f objection, a charge or accusation brought in an ecclesiastical court SM32/26, etc; SX178/30

obiector, -oris n m objector, a man who comes forward to lay formal objections against a witness or compurgator in an ecclesiastical court C363/35, etc

obiectrix, -ricis n f a female objector C365/1

obiectum, -i sbst nt 1. charge LI268/2; 2. objection OX86/7

obiiceo, -icere, -eci, -ectum v tr 1. to put (something) before (someone) (with acc of thing and dat of person) OX140/15; 2. to expose (someone) to danger or the like (with acc of person and dat of the thing threatened) WL264/1; 3. to enter an objection against a witness or statement C364/22, etc; 4. to bring a charge (against) (with acc of charge and dat of person) C363/28, etc; CH730/32, etc; EK308/9, etc; EL208/2; LI56/33, etc; OX163/16, etc; SH273/33, etc; SM32/21, etc; SX18/27, etc; WL236/27, etc; 5. in idiom pars ... obijciens the objecting party (in a suit), ie, that bringing charges CH772/15, etc

obitus, -us n m 1. literally death: de obitu Theodosii 'Of the death of Theodosius,' a sermon by Ambrose on the death of Theodosius I CH808/29-30m; 2. hence obit, annual commemoration of the death of a college's founder or other benefactor OX510/35

oblacio, -onis n f 1. alms, offerings, gift C13/15, etc; CH46/27; CR489/29, etc; EK314/39, etc; H102/18, etc; LI6/33, etc; SH354/28; WL54/14; 2. hence the mass, especially but not exclusively one offered for the souls of the departed LI25/3, etc

oblator, -oris n m literally one who offers, hence either 1. one who gives alms, especially on behalf of another, an almoner or 2. (by extension from the use of the root verb 'offero' to describe the offering of the eucharist) one who makes eucharistic wafers; the former seems more likely than the latter H189/14

oblatus, -a, -um adj literally rather wide or broad, hence (of clothing) having wide sleeves(?), or adorned with wide stripes(?) EL15/24 [cp DML 1 oblatus]

obligacio, -onis n f bond, obligation EK62/21, etc

obligatorius, -a, -um adj see billa

obligo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. with refl or in pass to bind or obligate oneself or to be bound or obligated, either to keep certain conditions or for the compliance of another, under pain of the forfeit of a sum of money C385/12, etc; EK821/41; EL143/6, etc; LI328/2, etc; OX195/39, etc; 2. prp obligans binding (used of a rule or order) EL23/8

obolum, -i n nt halfpenny CH40/41; LI25/20; obulus EL128/7

obprobriosus, -a, -um adj insulting, taunting OX48/30

obsequium, -ii n nt 1. duty, service (eg, as due to a lord or employer) EL17/13, etc; hence per obsequium by service OX504/22; 2. by extension (religious) service DR247/22; WL53/18, etc; coll pl diuina obsequia religious service, divine worship IC6/33--4; LI4/9, etc

obseruancia, -e n f observance (of rules and the like); see regularis

obseruo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. observe, watch CH35/38; 2. to keep: obseruare domum to keep one's home, ie, to remain at home CH227/37 [cp OEDO keep v. 33.]

obsonium, -ii n nt 1. provision of foodstuffs for a meal, hence a meal OX51/19; 2. in pl foodstuffs, victuals opsonia OX218/1

obstupeo, -ere, -ui v intr to be amazed, astounded WL3/6

obtusus, -a, -um adj literally blunt, dull; (of sounds) dull or deep WL8/18 [OLD obtusus, DML obtundere]

obuio, -are, -aui, -atum v tr (or intr + dat) to meet (someone) BR4/29; SH159/23

obulus see obolum

occasiono, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to interfere with (someone), hence to prosecute BR3/13 or to hinder by process of law LI608/17, etc

occo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to cut (eg, a length of thread) WL54/11

occupacio, -onis n f 1. activity, occupation, business EK912/11; LI118/43 (in coll pl); 2. trade, trade guild CH55/31, etc

occupator, -oris n m one who practises a trade or craft, craftsman CH55/30, etc

occupo, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. to practise (a craft or trade) CH56/13, etc; 2. hence to perform (an office or duty), do (a job) IC22/1, etc

ocillus, -i n m literally a little eye, hence a die: ludere ... ocillis to play dice OX56/23

ocrea, -e n f leather legging or boot LI78/11

octaba, -e (or octabe, -arum) n f octave, the eight-day period following a major festival LI36/23:



  1. octaba Innocencium (or octaua Innocencium EL14/9) octave of (Holy) Innocents' (Day), 28 December-4 January SM236/15;

  2. octabe Natiuitatis beate Marie octave of the Nativity of St Mary, 8-15 September EK39/25-6;

  3. octava Epiphanie the octave of Epiphany, 1--7 January OX57/15

octauadecima, -e sbst f literally the eighteenth, here the third day after the quindene of Easter, on which the Easter law term began EL230/12 (in form xviijna)

octonarius, -ii sbst m a line of verse containing eight metrical feet; octonarius trochaius such a line made up of trochees C119/35

oculatus, -a, -um adj having sight, keen-sighted; see fides

oeconomus see iconomus

Oedipus, -i n m Oedipus, legendary king of Thebes, here named as a play character OX178/17

Oeneus, -i n m Oeneus, a legendary Greek king, here likely named as a character in Gager's Meleager OX178/32

oenopolium, -ii n nt wine shop, tavern C267/6

offensum, -i n nt offence, crime CH78/4, etc

offero, -rre, obtuli, oblatum v tr 1. to administer (an oath) SH57/26, etc; 2. to offer, show, present (an entertainment) SH191/36

officialis -e adj of or pertaining to a bishop's judicial office; see liber

officialis, -is n m 1. officer, official WL11/6, etc; hence 2. an archdeacon's official, a subordinate officer who supervised legal business in the archdeaconry courts, and often acted as judge in the archdeacon's place C363/20, etc; CR464/4; EK814/6, etc; EL211/19; SM423/19; 3. a bishop's official, probably the official principal, another name for the bishop's vicar general or chancellor, a deputy with primarily administrative and judicial responsibility DR248/2, etc; EK974/16; officialis principalis CH767/22; EL210/21

officiarius, -i n m officer, a functionary (eg, in the service of a city or town, court, household, or the Crown) BR6/39; C399/24, C841/14; CH135/8, etc; EK324/33m, etc; IC94/31m, etc; L115/5 (probably a household servant), etc; LI316/25, etc; OX192/5, etc

officio, -icere, -eci, -ectum v intr to carry out a task, perform an office CH47/8

officium, -ii n nt 1. office, position of responsibility or authority C841/23, C301/17, etc; CH48/12, etc; EK822/7, etc; EL17/3, etc; LI4/24, etc; OX7/31, etc; SM237/24, etc; WL21/23, etc; 2. especially a bishop's judicial office, normally exercised by subordinate judges CH767/27, etc; EL53/6; hence ex parte officii on behalf of the office LI94/37; ~ (domini) (the lord's) office, the diocesan court BR3/23; C363/10, etc; CH14/10, etc; DR137/32, etc; EK305/11, etc; EL140/18, etc; H165/19; L18/41, etc; SH50/21, etc; SM424/8, etc; SX40/10, etc; W381/32, etc; the phr ex officio (mero), ~ (domini) merum, and ~ dominorum merum, especially when followed by contra and the name(s) of the accused, refer to an ex officio proceeding, ie, one in which the court acts alone, rather than on the prompting of a presentment or other direct report, in a proceeding similar to a criminal proceeding in a secular court C308/23, etc; CH730/17 (sg), CH305/19 (pl); DR248/3-4; L23/8; EK19/11, etc; SM130/3, etc; hence liber ex officio office book, one in which such proceedings are recorded SM210/7m; 3. used collectively for staff and apparatus needed for the on-going work of a household office, department LI580/11, etc; 4. duty, responsibility, one's job C205/3, etc; EK939/13?; CH40/37, etc; H99/29; OX7/30, etc; SM238/3, etc; SX4/1, SX4/2; 5. by extension an official document CH57/34; 6. A. helpful action, service, a courtesy EK325/21; OX270/28 (see gracia); B. by extension ceremony, rite CH36/24; 7. hence a liturgical office CR503/38; OX3/13, etc; W395/28;



  1. diuinum ~ or ~ diuinum divine office, set of daily prayers and scriptural readings to be said by religious at the canonical hours C29/24, etc; CH46/25; CR527/24, etc; LI108/19-20, etc; OX3/9m, etc; SM236/19, etc; WL216/25--6;

  2. diuinum ~ divine service, used to refer in general to a liturgical service held at St Paul's Cathedral EL125/16, etc;

  3. ~ ecclesiasticum (or ecclesiasticum ~ OX3/9) divine office, set of daily prayers and scriptural readings to be said by religious at the canonical hours (in OX and EK likely a deliberate play on sense 2 as well) CR503/26; EK939/13?; SX4/1-2;

  4. ~ mortuorum office of the dead, ie, prayers for the repose of the souls of the departed EK976/2;

  5. ~ puerorum literally the boys' office, the rite set out for the boy bishop and his fellows EL16/27, EL16/29

officius, -ii n m officer, official SH128/33

oleum, -i n nt in CL olive oil but here apparently any edible oil: oleum rape rapeseed oil, canola oil EK101/14; oleum oliui olive oil EK101/15

omnino adv at any time, on any occasion L36/1

onero, -are, -aui, -atum v tr 1. to charge (someone to do something), charge (someone with a task) CH716/15; IC40/16; 2. to charge or debit (someone) with an expense (may be used with 'cum' or 'de' and abl) C570/10; IC22/36, etc; SM698/26; 3. to charge someone by an oath, swear someone to an oath (used with acc of person and simple abl) C364/40, etc; CH843/20, etc; DR137/33; EK726/39, etc; H185/38-186/1; SH59/8, etc; SM424/10, etc; SX30/5

onoro, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to reward (someone with something) LI230/19

operalis, -e adj of or pertaining to work; see dies

operacio, -onis n f act of making or producing EK100/15, etc

operatus, -a, -um adj worked, formed EK100/28; LI27/28, etc

opero, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to work, labour, do OX95/22, etc; SM178/13, etc

oppidanus, -a, -um adj 1. of or pertaining to a town; it continues to be used of Oxford in some University-related sources after its status had changed OX251/40, etc; 2. m sg as sbst inhabitant of a town, townsman OX98/20, etc

oppidum, -i n nt town (as opposed to a city) EL147/40; OX37/21, etc (continues to be used of Oxford in some University-related sources after its status had changed)

oppono, -onere, -osui, -ositum v tr 1. to put in the way of, place so as to block or obstruct OX138/17; 2. to take the opposing side, argue against (of the opposing side in a disputed question) OX218/11

oppositus, -a, -um adj 1. opposite, turned or moving the other way WL54/13; 2. situated opposite, facing, hence nt sg as sbst the other side (of) WL11/29

opprobriosus, -a, -um adj insulting, taunting C309/2; CH766/26, etc; WL238/1

opprobrius, -a, -um adj insulting, taunting IC60/9

opsonium see obsonium

optimas, -atis n m nobleman, lord, peer OX140/24, etc; WL11/22, etc

opus, -eris n nt 1. work, labour C95/22, etc; EK308/15; LI109/19, etc; WL54/5; hence in idiom opus damascenum damascene work, term applied to various styles of craftsmanship (in textiles or metal) originating in Damascus, or to examples of these styles C113/9 [OEDO Damascene a. and n. A.2. and MED damask n.]; 2. action, deed CH46/38; EL244/17; WL78/24, etc; opera sancta holy works LI5/27; 3. working, making LI27/27, etc; 4. literary work C237/19; 5. need EK912/13, etc; WL12/29, etc; see also misericordia

or, -is n f gold EL15/23 [cp OLD aurum(?)]

oracio, -onis n f 1. speech, oration EK203/36; LI208/3; in titles Oratio Areopagitica title of a speech by Isocrates CH807/32-3m; oratio de Agesilao, work by Xenophon in praise of the Spartan king Agesilaus SM191/39m; 2. prayer CH46/38; DR247/31; EK930/14; H57/9, etc; LI6/4, etc; SM423/7; especially the prayers of the divine office, the set of daily prayers and scriptural readings to be said by religious at the canonical hours SX4/2; 3. hence in idiom uespertine oraciones evening prayer, the post-Reformation evening office of the Church of England, a conflation of the pre-Reformation offices of vespers and compline H63/10

ora pro nobis vb phr pray for us: a litany response, here in a mock funeral LI271/37, etc

orator, -oris n m literally speaker, orator, here by extension an ambassador EK204/15, etc

oratorium, -ii n nt literally a place of prayer; hence oratory, oratory, a (usually private) chapel EK204/2; W396/1

ordinacio, -onis n f 1. regulation, management CH78/3; EK975/21; LI25/12, etc; 2. a specific regulation, an order BR5/34; C259/36, etc; CH46/30, etc; EK63/39; H188/39; IC93/10m, etc; LI25/34, etc; OX13/25, etc; SH127/31; SM236/14; 3. ordination, sacramental rite conferring holy orders, usually used of ordination to priesthood, but here of the consecration of a priest to the episcopal order H99/3



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