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grex, -egis n m literally flock, herd, here used metaphorically for a Christian congregation or other community under the care of a bishop or other pastor LI4/25, etc

grossior, -ius compar adj thicker WL8/18

grossus, -a, -um adj 1. big, large EK101/9; (of salt or the like) coarse EK101/13; in grosso gross (as opposed to net), in full, in total EK100/27, etc; in grosso IC11/10; LI27/15 or in grossum (written as one word) LI32/11 including everything, inclusive (of payments or charges); 2. nt sg as sbst a gross, twelve dozen EK104/5

gru n indecl literally a grunt in phr ne gru quidem literally not even a grunt, ie, not a sound LI352/23 [LSJ γρυ]

gruinus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to a crane; see caro

Gualensis, -is sbst m Welshman WL57/23

Gualinfordensis, -e adj of or belonging to Wallingford, name of a feudal lordship in Oxfordshire WL57/18

gubernacio, -onis n f oversight: either care, protection or control EK77/21

gubernator, -oris n m literally steersman, pilot, hence: 1. organizer, ringleader OX8/18; 2. governor, one of the governing body of Lincoln's Inn, chosen from among the benchers IC8/5, etc

guerra, -e n f war CH45/8; LI608/9, etc; SH353/14; used as a name element IC462/12

guerrimus, -a, -um adj warlike, hence offensive SH264/11, etc

guerrinus, -a, -um adj warlike CH681/6 (in form guerr<...> due to MS condition); OX8/16

guihalda, -e n f guildhall, centre of town government SH263/30; specifically the Guildhall, centre of civic government in London EL97/9, etc; guilhalda CR498/29; see also aula, gilda

guinterna, -e n f gittern, a type of small, short-necked lute BR6/31 [see Wright, Laurence. "Gittern." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online, (accessed June 2, 2009).]

gula, -e n f literally throat, by extension appetite, gluttony LI5/1

gulosus, -i sbst m one who enjoys fine food, gourmand, hence by extension one who over-indulges in food and drink CR464/12

gustus see gestus

Gwallia, -e n f Wales WL3/10, etc

gyganteam var of giganteam [OLD Giganteus]

gynaecaeus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to women, female OX309/10; nt sg as sbst gynaecaeum a section set aside or reserved for women OX306/22


habeo, -ere, -ui, -itum n tr 1. to have, possess (whether literally or figuratively) BR125/1; CH47/31, etc; LI3/12, etc; hence to have as a right CH45/9, etc; 2. to have, receive CH718/36, etc; 3. to hold, conduct LI341/24, etc; 4. to have (a person in a given office or capacity) LI25/25, etc; 5. to have (to do something) CH843/12, etc; LI347/15, etc; 6. to have, observe (a custom) CH77/31, etc; 7. to have (something brought into a given condition or state) LI125/13; 8. as legal term to have (someone or something) available (eg, in court or before a judge) CH116/3; 9. to hold an opinion, consider CH768/23; hence with appositives regard, consider (something as) CH768/13, etc; (with n + predicate adj); gratam habere to regard (an action) as pleasant, hence, to be pleased at BR4/19; ratam habere to regard (an action) as valid or established LI132/15-16; hence, to approve it BR4/37; ratum et gratum habere literally to regard (an action) as pleasing and valid, hence to regard it as approved CH155/23, etc

habitaculum, -i n nt dwelling, hence scaenicum habitaculum stage house, part of the traditional scenery used for Roman comedy OX306/11

habitus, -us n m literally style of dress, hence (religious) habit LI607/2, etc; SM237/7, etc

hac see ante hac, post hac

hacca, -e n f axe SH14/15; hacha OX6/4

hacknellus, -i n m hackney, hack, a saddle-horse, often one for hire EK315/15, etc [cp OEDO hackney n. (a.)]

hae, tes def art f transliteration of Gk ἡ, τῆς, the f def art IC659/17

haereditate over-corrected form of hereditate [OLD hereditas]

haeres over-corrected form of heres [OLD]

halec, -ecis n m herring: halec albus white, ie, salt, herring EK100/36; halec rubeus red, ie, fresh, herring EK100/37

halibuttum, -i n nt halibut, a flat fish popular as food EK340/36, etc

haraldus, -i n m herald: 1. messenger SX184/5; herodus SH159/35; heredis (3rd decl) SH161/36?; 2. herald of arms, an officer in a royal or noble household concerned with the regulation of arms and their bearing: haraldus armorum EK101/29; herodus de armis SH159/34; heraudus EK315/22

harnisia, -e n f harness, gear, here probably specifically armour EK104/34, etc; hernesia EK104/3

harparator, -oris n m harper, one who plays upon a harp, possibly a generic term for players upon plucked-string, as opposed to bowed, instruments H189/16, etc; harpator EK29/11, etc

Harperus, -i n m literally harper, here apparently a Latinized surname, Harper EK69/13

Hartfordia, -ae n f Hartford: 1. name of a county IC201/26; Hartfortia IC464/13; 2. name of a town: Hertfordia EK322/19

Haspurgensis, -is n f Habsburg, an ancestral castle on the Aar River from which the counts of Habsburg, later Holy Roman Emperors, took their name EK779/24, etc

hasta, -e n f literally spear, here apparently one of the four shafts supporting the canopy that the representatives of the Cinque Ports bore above the king or queen at the coronation EK734/7, etc

hastiludium, -ium n nt literally a sport with spears, hence hastilude, joust, tournament LI607/2, etc; OX529/32

haubergettus, -i n m a small, or light, hauberk, a short coat or tunic of mail CH45/7

hauriens, -ntis prp drawing, pulling EK104/1

(h)ebdomada, -e n f week EK553/3; W397/24, etc; ebdomada Paschatis Easter week, ie, Easter Sunday and its octave SM241/35, etc, or hebdomeda Pasche WL42/23; hebdomada natalis Domini Christmas week, probably the feast of Christmas and its octave, 25-31 December SX17/30-1; in form (h)ebdomas (gen either -de or -dis) OX6/6, etc; ebdomas Pasche Easter week, ie, Easter Sunday and its octave OX11/39; ebdomas ... Pentecostes Pentecost week, ie, Pentecost Sunday and its octave OX11/39

Hector, -oris n m Hector, a hero of the Trojan War, here named as a character in the play Ajax Flagellifer OX308/13

heraldicus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to a herald, heraldic; see ars

heraudus see haraldus

herbergiator, -oris n m harbinger, royal officer with responsibility of finding accommodation for a royal party SH128/18, etc

Herburtus, -i n m Herburt, surname of Jan Herburt (1508-76), Polish historian and legist CH795/4m

hercia, -e n f hearse, a triangular frame to hold candles LI25/16

hereditamentum, -i n nt hereditament, what is capable of being inherited EL138/16

heredis see haraldus

Herefordensis, -is n m Hereford, name of a town and of a diocese H98/9, etc; OX34/13

Herefordia, -e n f Hereford: 1. name of a town and of a diocese H200/13, etc; SH6/7, etc; WL221/12; Herfordia SH193/5; 2. name of an earldom Herfordia EK51/20

heresis, -is n f heresy, heterodox teaching on some point(s) of Christian doctrine (an offence under both common and canon law and a capital crime in England from the early 15th to late 17th century) OX103/32; SM251/8, SM251/11

Hermes, -ae n m Hermes, the messenger and herald of the gods, a type of eloquence OX314/11

hernesia see harnisia

hernisatus, -a, -um pfp pass decorated SX14/11

herodus see haraldus

heroicus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to a hero, heroic (here applied to a fictive order of chivalry) IC424/23

Hertfordia see Hartfordia

hexemerus -a, -um adj of or pertaining to a period of six days C235/34 [from Gk ἑχήμερος]

Hibernia, -e n f Ireland C404/2, etc; CH55/26, etc; EK779/22; EL143/11; H94/6; IC666/22; L21/25, etc; LI59/10m, etc; OX196/6, etc; SH136/20, etc; SM189/11, etc; SX170/29, etc; W451/25, etc; WL158/4, etc; Hybernia WL3/6, etc

Hibernicus, -a, -um adj Irish OX315/13

Hieronymus, -i n m St Jerome (c 341-420), patristic theologian and translator CH807/33m, etc [ODCC]

Hierosolymitanus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to Jerusalem C283/2

hipodidasculata, -e n f office of under-teacher or usher, ushership LI208/14

hipodidasculus, -i n m a second or under-teacher, usher LI208/6, etc

Hispania, -e n f the kingdom of Spain OX136/1; in idiom princeps Hispaniarum literally prince of Spains, the plural was adopted by convention from the eleventh century when the Christian kingdoms of Spain were being joined together by marriage or conquest EK779/23, etc

histernus, -a, -um adj next SM119/3 [apparently from Gk ὕστερος]

histor, -oris n m entertainer SM41/22 [apparently a local form of histrio]

(h)istoria, -e n f 1. literally story, account, history OX60/25, etc; Historiae 'The Histories,' title of a work on contemporary Italian history by Paulus Jovius CH779/31; Historia Graeca, Latinized title of Xenophon's Hellenica, a history of Greece during the author's lifetime SM191/37m, etc; Historia Polonica 'History of Poland,' title of a work edited by Jan Herburt CH795/6-7m; 2. by extension a visual representation of a story OX28/17; in the occurrence at H118/36 the exact sense cannot be determined

historialis, -e adj historical: historicalis comedia a historical comedy (here one set during the Roman Empire) OX135/35

historicus, -a, -um adj historical; see bibliotheca

historiographus, -i n m historian C132/30

historiola, -ae n f little story, a short tale OX305/4

histrio, -onis n m 1. actor, as in CL usage (often found in early modern AL usage) C241/26, C399/13, C543/38, C53/32?, C182/23?, C671/31?; DR171/29; OX162/31, etc; the pejorative usage in Quinel's Statutes (CR464/14, CR465/6) and other theological and penitential sources (eg, EK939/11; LI7/17; hystrio LI7/17c) is more influenced by the patristic sense of 'histrio' for a performer in obscene farces or ritual drama [see OLD, DML, and REED Devon LG histrio]; 2. entertainer, probably one whose entertainment included music of some kind CH49/35, etc; IC5/31, etc (here often referring to such entertainers retained by an Inn, eg, histriones dicti hospicii entertainers of the said Inn IC19/32); LI317/1, etc; WL288/20; estrio IC55/9; histreo IC5/21; histricio IC74/34; histro IC23/5, etc; istrio LI109/20; istruo IC52/15, etc; the connection with music is made explicit in such phrases as histriones harpatores & alii menestralli EK29/11; istriones & citharedes EK29/25; trumppator' & alii ystriones EK35/29; likely often used as a synonym of mimus and ministrallus, although the phr mimi & histriones in SX17/36 may be contrasting two groups: A. with specification:

  1. such an entertainer in the employ of a town, town wait (usually with name of town expressed) EK60/17, etc; SH130/32, etc; SX184/14; W400/25; communis ~ C6/36-7; histriones istius ciuitatis LI152/32, etc; histriones uille C13/15, etc; LI78/19; SH166/1, etc; histriones uocati Waytes SH131/35-6, etc; histriones uocati le waytes EK80/24; ystriones de uilla EK53/25; possibly distinguished from waits: histriones et wayts de brudgenorth SH203/5; histriones seu uigiles EK81/32, etc; in Shrewsbury not often explicitly a musician but see SH175/11-22; SH186/3-4?; also as synonym of ministrallus SH146/13; such an entertainer associated with, and perhaps synonymous with, mimus LI27/34, etc, or ministrallus LI107/23;

  2. with a named royal, noble, or other patron:

    1. an entertainer, possibly a musician, under such patronage C7/12, etc; CR494/29; EK28/17 (in form ystrio), etc; OX14/21, etc; SH127/5, etc (in Shrewsbury in the last decade of the sixteenth and first four decades of the seventeenth centuries, often certainly a musician SH159/5-6, etc); SX182/7, etc;

    2. a singer under such patronage SH176/35-6, SH177/22-3;

    3. a harper under such patronage SH177/35-6;

    4. synonym for mimus SH149/3 or ministrallus SH132/17-18, etc or for another musician under such patronage histriones nuncii & alii fistulatores EK73/12-13;

    5. a player under such patronage SH182/29-31? (or possibly another example of sense 2.A.ii.a);

  3. with other specification: histriones equestres mounted entertainers, entertainers on horseback (although context is scant, it seems unlikely that the accountant cared what form of transportation the entertainers used; cp REED Sussex EG foot pleys) EK80/11;

B. without specification, possibly used generically; often the exact sense cannot be determined: C4/33, etc; EK27/23, etc; L114/15, L114/23; SH129/16, etc; SX183/33, SX184/12, SX184/13, SX184/20, SX184/21, SX186/40, SX187/18, SX212/8; participant in May game SH191/6-7; with reference to music SH192/34-5, SH193/7-8; SH200/35? (in form istrio), SH201/15?; ~ uocatus Trumpet SH133/10; by far the most common of the three synonyms used in Cambridge; FORMS (only distinguished by senses for EK): histriho EK71/32 (sense 2.A.i., 2.B); histrior C38/14, etc; histro (declined as an i-stem) C70/41, etc; SH139/3; histronius C75/27, etc; hustrio L114/8; hystrio C3/28, etc; EK28/22, etc (sense 2.B); istrio C6/12, etc; EK28/27 (senses 2.A.ii.a,2.A.ii.b,2.B); SH200/28, SH200/35, SH201/7; ystrio C6/19, etc; EK28/34, etc (senses 2.A.i,2.A.ii.a,2.A.ii.a,2.B); SH479/13; ystryo EK36/22, etc (sense 2.B)

Holborn n indecl Holborn, a district in London and home to several Inns: Superior et Inferior Holborn Upper and Lower Holborn, name of a duchy held by a Christmas prince IC424/20; Holburnia IC488/37

Hollandia, -ae n f Holland, name of an earldom C662/12; Hollanda C676/3

homagium, -ii n nt homage, act of allegiance by a tenant or vassal to his lord CH45/6; LI606/15

homelia, -e n f homily, sermon, especially one on a biblical text CH808/17m; EL258/23m

Homerus, -i n m Homer, Greek epic poet believed to have been the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey SM192/23m [OCD]; see also Ilias

homo, -inis n m 1. literally human being, person C267/18, etc; EK537/24, etc; EL15/26, etc; LI3/7, etc; OX6/23, etc; WL79/17, etc; see also memoria; this is the sense originally intended in the quotation from Virgil's Aeneid on OX270/16 but the speaker quoting is apparently punning on L 'homines' and E 'ominous'; 2. used as a synonym for 'uir,' usually referring to hired labourers, porters, and the like man, male human being C267/14; CH45/7, etc; EK34/31, etc; LI5/25, etc; OX28/16, etc; SH138/33; WL54/2, etc; it is not possible to say in which way the word is used in C55/13, C60/34, or SX29/11; 3. in pl idiom with names of communities or the like locals, townspeople, parishioners LI103/34, etc; SH14/1, etc; often likely members of a group of local players EK732/26, etc; SH353/27, SH354/36; SX185/36; 4. liege man, servant C68/36; SX182/7; 5. in various idioms:

  1. homines in armis men-at-arms SH159/27;

  2. ~ cantator L equivalent of singing man, a choir singer? (see also cantator) SH76/33, SH77/20;

  3. legales homines legal men, technically those who have not been disqualified by excommunication, outlawry, or the like from serving as jurors CH26/4; EL97/17, etc; by extension possibly burgesses, members of the town oligarchy SH138/13, etc;

  4. probi homines SH133/7, etc, literally honourable men, are probably synonymous with the former as are the unmodified homines accompanying the town bailiffs on SH134/1 and SH134/6; probi & legales homines good and legal men SH135/13-14;

  5. vj homines possibly the Six Men, Shrewsbury town officials subordinate to the bailiffs with primarily financial responsibilities SH129/22; see also sessor

honor, -oris n m 1. honour, esteem LI24/26, etc; WL60/12, etc; 2. (feudal) honour, a lordship made up of several manors LI582/18, etc; WL57/16

honorabil(l)is, -e adj worthy of honour, honourable IC90/36, etc; compar honorabilior, -ius receiving greater honour, more honorable WL11/27

hora, -e n f hour: 1. literally hour, hour of the day C315/26, etc; CH68/28, etc; LI208/1; SM174/12; hour, time EK822/9, etc; ~ iija the third hour, about 9 am LI117/9; see also nonus; 2. specific time at which an event occurs C238/25, C332/30; 3. used absolutely in pl hours, a long time C236/34, etc; 4. in various idioms:

  1. ~ canonica either canonical hour, one of the set times for worship according to monastic or other community rules, or the form of service, part of the divine office, to be said at one of those set times C229/14-15; CH47/6; EK23/33; LI3/8; SM237/13, etc (sometimes hora alone used absolutely in this sense CR503/27; EK23/33; LI3/10) or a time designated by canon law, such as a canonical time for court sittings SH58/11;

  2. ~ causarum literally the hour of cases, a set time for church court sittings EK892/38, etc;

  3. ~ ecclesiastica canonical hour, one of the set times for worship according to monastic or other community rules, or the form of service, part of the divine office, to be said at one of those set times EL22/14; hore diurne & nocturne the day and night hours, ie, all the canonical hours, at whatever time they are observed EL22/12

horilogium, -ii n nt a clock, probably a mechanical one LI140/4, etc; horelogium LI166/32, etc; orilegium LI132/4; orilogium LI133/1, etc; orrilogium LI118/8

hospicium, -ii n nt 1. lodging, dwelling, home EK976/40; OX5/15, etc; specifically the lodgings of a college officer OX407/29; WL11/42 (in form hospitium); 2. hence hostel, an unendowed residence for students C47/19, etc; 3. by extension one of the Inns of Court or Chancery, at which members were trained in the law IC6/28, etc; hospicia curie Inns of Court IC11/4; 4. household EK341/22, etc; W464/22, etc; 5. hospice, guesthouse, a hostel maintained by a religious house for travellers and other strangers EL22/21, etc; SX185/9; Hospitium Amatorum literally lovers' hospice, translating the title of a play, Love's Hospital OX894/8--9 (cp OEDO hospital n. 1.); 6. inn SH42/33; hospicium Signi Swan Inn EK77/13; hospicium Solis Sun Inn EK77/33; 7. hospitality, welcome C510/12

hospitale, -is n nt hospital, charitable institution founded to care for the sick or needy EK823/19, etc; LI109/16

hospitor, -ari, -atus sum v intr to lodge, reside WL12/1

hostelarium, -ii n nt inn SH10/24

hostilitas, -atis n f war, hostilities SM423/10; W347/21

hostium var of ostium [OLD]

Hugucio, -onis n m the grammarian Huguccio of Pisa (fl. 1160), author of the Liber Derivationum, often confused with the Bolognese decretistic Huguccio, later bishop of Ferrera (d. 1210), here used by metonymy to refer to his writings EL19/8

huiusmodi n phr 1. functioning adjectivally or adverbially of this kind, in this way, such LI5/18, etc; 2. functioning substantively this, such things LI3/13 etc

humanior, -ius compar adj in idiom litere humaniores humane letters, the humanist curriculum of study, including Greek and Latin languages and literature, moral philosophy, poetry, rhetoric, history, and some natural philosophy and mathematics; see lector

humanitas, -atis n f 1. humane letters the humanist curriculum of study, including Greek and Latin languages and literature, moral philosophy, poetry, rhetoric, history, and some natural philosophy and mathematics; see lector; 2. humanity, kindness C510/20

humanus, -a, -um adj 1. literally of or belonging to a person, here an adult as opposed to a child EL241/27; 2. by extension humane, kindly EL22/9

Humbria, -e n f Humber, name of a river in northern England WL10/15

humiliacio, -onis n f act of submission to authority, obeisance IC23/31

humilio, -are, -aui, atum v tr to bring low, humble EL240/19

humilis, -e adj humble, lowly (as embodying a Christian virtue) EL208/22; LI58/31; OX3/7

humilitas, -atis n f humility, lack of arrogance (seen as a positive virtue rather than with negative CL connotations) SX4/3 [OLD humilitas]

humiliter adv in a humble manner CH47/8, etc; LI4/11; OX209/21; SX21/9; WL79/16

humor, -oris n m humour: quatuor humores the four humours, the four primary materials (earth, air, fire, and water) from which the human body and all other earthly things were believed to be made OX308/29 [OLD umor]

hundredarius, -ii n m hundreder, bailiff of a hundred court SM182/22m

hundredum, -i n nt hundred, legal and administrative subdivision of a county CH716/7m, etc; EK537/4; SH14/7; SM182/25

Huntingdonia, -e n f Huntingdon, name of an earldom EK309/34; Huntyngdonia EK331/18; Huntendonia C25/11

hustrio see histrio

hutesium, -ii n nt hue, outcry, especially the outcry made in pursuit of a criminal: hutesium facere to raise a hue CH717/21 (in form hut<...> due to MS condition)

huto, -ere v tr to bait (an animal, here a bull) LI316/16

Hybernia see Hibernia

Hybernicus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to Ireland, Irish SH98/31; WL3/8, etc

hyemare var of hiemare [OLD hiemo]

hyems var of hiems [OLD hiem(p)s]

hystorie var of historie [OLD historia]

hystrio see histrio


iacolator see ioculator

iacto, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to cast up (accounts), hence to account (as), reckon IC125/29, etc

iactus, -us n m literally a throw or cast, here used of the movement made with a shuttle in weaving cloth WL54/13

iantaculum, -i n nt breakfast, the first formal meal of the day EK321/37; LI121/35, etc; gentaculum LI129/19

iconomus, -i n m churchwarden EK645/36, etc; SM40/34; economus L92/27; iconimus EK606/1, etc; oeconomus EK558/26, etc

ictus, -us n m literally a blow, here used of the movement made with a weaver's reed in separating and beating up threads in weaving WL54/14

idea, -ae n f form, appearance OX308/17

ideota, -e n m idiot, one incapacitated by extreme intellectual disability: de ideota probanda name of a writ that established a commission to ascertain whether an individual was an idiot and should be in wardship IC467/1

idioma, -atis n nt manner of speaking, especially one characteristic of a region or its people OX307/35; hence a particular language: ydioma maternum mother tongue OX27/28

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