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Biblia, -e n f Bible OX27/23, etc; Biblia (coll nt pl) LI26/39, etc Biblium (nt) OX92/17

bibliopola, -ae n m stationer, bookseller, one who sells both books and the materials used to produce them C180/16

bibliotheca, -e n f literally a bookcase, hence library: Historica Bibliotheca The Bibliotheca title of a world history by Diodorus Siculus SM194/14m

bidellus see bedellus

bifurca, -e n f pitchfork with two prongs CH681/6

biga, -e n f literally a cart, hence a cart-load IC88/8, etc

bigata, -e n f cart-load IC92/8, etc

bigator, -oris n m carter C34/37

billa, -e n f 1. bill, itemized statement of charges or expenses C36/28, etc; EK319/21, etc; IC23/4, etc; LI119/3, etc; OX30/4, etc; SH187/7; in idiom ~ obligatoria note of hand C249/19; 2. complaint, allegation SH112/7, SH222/25; SX11/1, etc; especially a bill, list of allegations or the sheet on which such a list is presented EK726/21m, etc; EL229/40, etc; SM251/9, etc; ~ certificatoria certificatory bill, such a bill of charges certified by the presenters' signs or signatures EK875/34, etc; ~ deteccionis bill of detection, list of allegations detected, ie, charged, against a defendant in an ecclesiastical court SX180/19; ~ uera true bill, the decision of an inquest jury that a bill is sufficient for a valid indictment CH22/18, etc; SH112/9, etc; SM143/40, etc; W370/6; WL158/15; 3. bill, a handbill or placard containing an announcement, here one containing the banns of a play EK755/30 [cp OEDO bill n.3 8.a.]

binatim adv two by two, in pairs W597/5

birra, birrus see beris

Blasius, -ii n m Blaise, name of a saint, here likely referring to a person representing the saint LI108/8

blasphemia, -e n f blasphemy, contemptuous words or actions directed against God directly (or indirectly as against the saints, the sacraments, etc) and treated as an offence under canon law CR504/1 [ODCC]

Bletherus, -i n m Bledri, a Welsh proper name (here apparently misunderstood by the 17th-c. antiquarian Peter Leycester as an agentive noun meaning a blatherer, one who babbles) CH38/8, etc

blodius, -ii n m the colour blue C77/9; SM243/32

Boemus, -i n m Boemus, surname of Johannes Boemus (c 1485--1535), author of Omnium gentium mores, leges et ritus OX310/17m

Boeoticus, -a, -um adj literally of or pertaining to Boeotia, a district of Greece, here sbst nt pl Boeotica, title of Book IX of Pausanias' Description of Greece, about Boeotia SM199/35m

Bokynghamia, Bokynhamia see Bukinghamia

bonus, -a, -um adj good; see curia, de, gestus

Bonifacius, -ii n m Boniface, name of several saints and nine popes, here used in the fictive name of a mock-jury member, Bonifacius Bellus 'Pretty-face Charming,' by combining elements of L and E vocabulary IC463/33

borealis, -e adj 1. northern WL10/15, etc; borialis CR493/38; see also uicus; 2. f as sbst the North (of England): see concilium

boro see baro

bos, bouis n comm ox; see caro

boscus, -i n m 1. woodland, here probably part of a tenant's individual holding or, less likely, land from which a tenant has the right to cut or gather wood SM179/26, etc; 2. wood (as a commodity), here likely firewood LI197/8

botellus, -i n m bottle EK61/9

botularia, -e n f buttery, a store-room for provisions, by extension provisions themselves or an allowance for them IC45/9

Botulphus, -i n m Botolph, the name of a saint: Sancti Botulphi extra Algate (with 'parochia' understood) the parish of St Botolph without Aldgate EL53/36-7m; Sanctus Botulphus St Botolph, another name for the town of Boston, so-called from the dedication of the parish church LI607/3, etc

bouinus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to an ox; see caro

Brabancia, -ae n f Brabant, a district (duchy) of the Low Countries C845/5; EK779/24, etc

brasium, -i n nt malt, malted grain, probably for brewing EK34/15; LI25/38

brauium, -ii n nt prize (eg, for a contest) LI5/18, etc

breudatus, -a, -um pfp pass embroidered EL18/20

breue, -is sbst nt (legal) writ CH52/2, etc; EK732/33, etc; EL97/13, etc; IC7/11; OX529/22, etc; SH266/1, etc; breue de priuato sigillo a writ issued under the royal privy seal BR204/6; CH56/42; see also custos

breuiuscula, -ae n f a short period of time OX310/14

Brioccius, -ii n m Brioc, name of a saint of Welsh origin WL79/3, etc; hypocoristic form of Briomaglus WL78/21

Bristollia, -e n f Bristol, name of a city BR3/6m, etc

Britannice adv in the Welsh language WL220/2, etc

Britannicus, -a, -um adj 1. of or pertaining to Wales, Welsh WL53/18; 2. of or pertaining to Britain, British OX305/14, etc

Britannus, -a, -um adj 1. of or pertaining to Britain, British OX314/4; Brytannus OX128/20; 2. m as sbst a man from the British Isles, a Briton IC512/29

Brito, -onis n m originally an inhabitant of Britain, Briton, hence, a Welshman WL223/3, etc; dextrales Britones South Walians, especially those from Deheubarth WL222/27; by extension Breton CR554/13

Brit(t)ania, -e n f Britain OX305/13, etc; Magna Britannia Great Britain IC666/22; Maior Brittania Greater Britain, the island containing England, Scotland, and Wales, as opposed to Britanny, or Lesser Britain WL10/15

browecum, -i n nt broth or meat stewed in broth with various seasonings: browecum de gallina chicken stewed in broth SM182/29 [MED brouet, OEDO browet]

brusdatus, -a, -um pfp pass embroidered C988/14

Brutus, -i n m a Roman cognomen, or one of the holders of that name, especially Marcus Junius Brutus (c78-42 BC), one of the assassins of Julius Caesar, here named as a character in the play Caesar Interfectus OX108/7, etc

Brytannus see Britannus

buccinator, -oris n m trumpeter, probably used generically for one who plays upon any wind instrument; possibly used to distinguish one who plays upon a curved wind instrument from one who plays upon a straight wind instrument C76/29, etc; CH731/26 (here used as a synonym for E 'piper'); OX158/23, etc;WL223/8; buccinitor OX256/4; buccionator C358/10 [from OLD bucina, a curved trumpet or horn, probably originally made from the curved horn of cattle; the usual -cc- AL spelling may be influenced by OLD bucca, cheeks, mouth]

buccino, -are, -aui, -atum v intr to sound a trumpet or horn, to play a wind instrument WL223/11

Bucleus, -ei n m Latinization of the E surname Buckley IC651/5

Bukinghamia, -e n f Buckingham, name of a dukedom SX47/37; Bukkinghamia EK70/19, etc; Bokynghamia EK614/17; Bokynhamia EK73/3

burdeicia, -e n f tilting, joust OX529/25 [see OEDO bourdis]

burderius, -ii n m either 1. jester, (from OF bordare, to jest); or possibly 2. smallholder (from ME bordar), but the second is less likely at this period C37/18

burgagium, -ii n nt burgage, a special form of tenure for houses or lands formerly containing houses within a borough L77/27; [Black's Burgage, Burgage-tenure]

burgemotum, -i n nt burghmote, an assembly of the freemen of a borough; see curia

burgensis, -is n m 1. burgess, one having the privileges, or freedom, of a city or town BR6/26; C25/15, etc; L40/10, L41/17; LI79/24, etc; OX503/17; SH301/41; SM242/28, etc; WL42/24, etc; 2. hence a town-dweller IC497/5

burglaria, -e n f burglary, felonious entry into a house by night WL237/17

Burgondia, -e n f Burgundy, a duchy of France EK779/24, etc; Burgundia IC11/2

burgus, -i n m borough: 1. borough, a fortified town: Nouus Burgus Newport, name of a town in Monmouthshire WL219/29, etc; (written as one word) Nouusburgus WL222/21; 2. an incorporated town CH645/23; DR200/24, etc; LI325/23m, etc; SM376/33m; Burgus Sancti Petri Peterborough, from the dedication of the abbey there LI606/20

bursa, -e n f purse EK203/15, etc

bursarius, -ii n m bursar, a financial officer in a college or other corporation OX30/31, etc; secundus bursarius second bursar, one of Merton College's three bursars OX63/38, etc; burssarius OX67/1, etc; see also festum

bushellus, -i n m bushel, a dry measure containing four pecks or eight gallons EK78/3; LI316/24

butta, -e n f butt, cask for wine of varying capacity EK100/20


cacodaemon, -onis n m evil spirit, demon (from Gk κακοδαίμων) EK827/26

cado, -ere, cecini, casum v intr to be applied to (charges or expenses), used of sums of money C496/18

cadus, -i n m barrel, cask C73/13

caelicola, -e n comm heaven-dweller, angel EK980/7

caena see cena

Caesar see Iulius Caesar

Caius, -ii n m Caius, the surname of John Caius (d.1573), second founder of Caius College, Cambridge (formerly known as Gonville and Caius College); see collegium

calamistra, -e n f weaver's reed, a tool made of reed or cane used to separate the threads of the warp and beat up the weft while weaving WL54/13 [OEDO reed n.1 10.a.]

calamodum, -i n nt reed-pipe, pipe (?) SX14/11[DML, OLD calamus]

calculus, -i n m literally a pebble or stone, in CL also a playing piece in certain board games, hence a chessman, in pl the game of chess OX56/23

caldarium, -ii n nt cauldron, kettle or other vessel for heating water WL12/30

calendae, calendas see kalende

calex, -icis n f in CL wine cup, hence chalice SX3/6; WL216/42; see missalis

caliamentarius, -ii n m shoemaker L40/5

Calicia, -e n f Calais C112/9, etc; Calisia C117/36

caliga, -e n f stockings, hose C44/17; IC45/9; OX8/34; SM126/35; calliga CH172/16

Calvinus, -i n m Calvin, surname of John Calvin (1509-64), a French theologian and church reformer CH779/32 [ODCC]

calx, -cis n m heel: see stockingo

Cambria, -e n f Wales SH97/33, etc

cambuca, -e n f crook or bend (eg, in a staff) EL15/5, etc

camera, -e n f 1. room, chamber EK40/19, etc; IC45/24, etc; LI123/12, etc; OX8/31, etc; WL14/2; specifically a royal chamber WL12/19; kamera WL14/29; 2. specifically one used as the site of civic administration EK62/16, etc; comunis camera LI208/18; or one used as the site of judicial proceedings C315/27, etc; SH42/32, etc; or a city court EL34/5; 3. in various idioms: camera regia or ~ regalis royal chamber, a department of the royal household EK203/25; IC201/3; camera stellata Star Chamber, the king's council sitting as a court H96/14-15 (see p H21); LI301/41; SM364/16; presentiae camera presence-chamber, one in which a monarch receives formal or state visits OX894/11; see also seruiens

camerarius, -ii n m chamberlain: 1. a civic officer EK79/14, etc; LI324/27; W412/9, etc; either a civic officer or an officer of the county palatine of Chester CH718/35; 2. an officer of the royal household EK77/13, etc; here a household officer fo a Christmas prince IC462/8; 3. a guild officer LI27/32, etc; 4. a servant in an inn C327/26

cameratus, -a, -um adj curved WL4/6 [see DML camuratus and OLD camur(us)]

caminus, -i n m fireplace, hearth C158/31

Camoena, -e overcorrection of Camena [OLD]

campana, -e n f 1. bell C841/15; EK976/34, etc; possibly a small bell used to decorate clothing OX1093/3; here likely a handbell EL/22/39; WL4/6; 2. bell rung as a signal CH716/23; or to call worshippers to a service LI24/40; campana communis common bell, ie, such a bell rung for official purposes, such as assembling a community OX503/16; 3. hence by extension in pl set of bells rung as part of the formal declaration of excommunication H99/32

campana, -orum n nt pl fields, ie, land under, or prepared for, cultivation CR493/9

campanile, -is n nt bell-tower EK976/34; LI109/20

campanilla, -e n f (diminutive of campana, -e) a little bell, perhaps a handbell CH177/40

Campanus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to Campania, Campanian; see Geminus

campus, -i n m 1. literally a field IC11/2, etc; ~ (Sanctus) Georgianus St George's Fields, a district in Southwark IC458/34, etc; 2. here referring to land pertaining to a church building but apparently in some way distinct from the churchyard, possibly land extending beyond or around the churchyard W348/24 [DML campus 2b]

canabus, -i1 n m hemp, tow SM248/38

canabus, -i2 n m canopy EK203/20

cancella see cancellus

cancellariatus, -us n m state or office of being a chancellor, chancellorship OX529/10

cancellarius, -ii n m chancellor: 1. another name for a vicar general, deputy of a bishop with primarily administrative and judicial responsibility: the chancellor of the diocese of Bristol DR171/14; the chancellor of the diocese of Chester CH681/37; the chancellor of the diocese of Hereford H98/10; SH72/5m; chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln LI266/39; 2. hence the chancellor of Cambridge University, originally a deputy of the bishop of Ely, later head of the corporation composed of chancellor, masters, and scholars of the university C141/23; the chancellor of Oxford University, originally a deputy of the bishop of Lincoln, later head of the corporation composed of chancellor, masters, and scholars of the University OX4/31, etc; chancellarius OX279/25; 3. one of the officers of a cathedral chapter CR504/26 (with particular oversight for the cathedral school); LI120/30, etc; 4. (royal) chancellor, originally the royal secretary, the post evolved to become that of the most senior administrative and judicial officer of the realm EK908/21, etc; OX7/231, etc; SX45/3

cancello, -are, aui, -atum v tr to obstruct (especially with a beam or block fallen or placed crosswise), block OX12/32

cancellus, -i n m chancel (of a church) SM226/26, etc; SX24/1; cancella SX178/37

cancerosus, -a, -um adj cankerous, malignant W349/27

Cancia see Kancia

candela, -e n f candle, whether of tallow or of wax EL14/8; IC4/9, etc ; LI104/14, etc; OX34/19, etc; SM177/37, etc; candela de assisa, assize candle, one which meets assize requirements SM177/36, etc

candelabrum, -i n nt literally a stand for a burning lamp or candles, here by extension a holder for a processional candle or torch EL17/3; SH138/33 [OLD]

caneuasium, -ii n nt canvas cloth EK34/27; canuasium EK100/31

canis, -is n m 1. dog OX6/23; as trained for bearbaiting OX37/22; 2. hence hunting dog, hound OX64/36, etc; canis uenaticus hunting dog EK912/8; OX6/25

cano, -ere, cecini, cantum v tr or intr 1. to sing C567/33?; EL4/3 (here of secular music); OX56/23, etc (always here of secular music); SH10/22, SH10/26, SH10/27, SH198/6; WL10/11, etc; hence to chant (liturgically) WL260/14; 2. to sing of, to tell of in song or verse C240/16; SH99/15; 3. to prophesy OX315/1, etc; WL9/23; 4. to play (a musical instrument), to sound a tune C567/33? (this CL sense was certainly known to the seventeenth century, however in the Cambridge passages under sense 1 'canere' probably distinguishes vocal from instrumental music); OX270/13? (the word-play here suggests this sense may have been intended rather than sense 1)

canon, -onis n m literally a model or standard, hence 1. canon misse the canon of the mass, the invariable central portion of the service comprising the eucharistic prayer W348/3; 2. canon, a provision of church law CH803/28; EK949/36; EL267/21; SM236/19, etc; sacri canones CH46/31-2; CR464/1; EK912/1; EL21/26; H57/15-16; SH5/36 or canones ecclesiastici CH772/20 sacred (or ecclesiastical) canons, the authoritative precepts of ecclesiastical law, used collectively, canon law

canonicalis, -e adj of or pertaining to a canon regular LI607/4

canonicatus, -us n m canonry, position held by a canon in a secular cathedral chapter EK946/7, etc; EL21/37

canonice adv canonically, in accordance with a specific canon or with canon law in general CH772/20; CR464/5; SM175/2; W347/9, etc; WL217/33

canonicus, -a, -um adj 1. canonical, pertaining or appropriate to a specific canon or to canon law in general C4/4; CH768/6; EK308/24, etc; H98/31, etc; LI4/32, etc; SM236/20, etc; W369/26, etc; WL217/39, etc; 2. nt sg as sbst canon, a provision of church law DR248/5; EK308/40; SM174/5; see also hora

canonicus, -i sbst m canon: 1. canon regular, a priest living in a community under a rule similar to that of St Benedict (under which monasteries were organised); canons often served as members of secular cathedral chapters or collegiate churches and other colleges CR493/14; EK23/36; EL14/18, etc; H201/1, etc; LI104/7, etc; SM173/36; ~ maior major canon, a senior canon in a cathedral chapter, as opposed to a minor canon EL17/12 (~ senior in same sense EL14/9); ~ regularis canon regular LI607/5; ~ residenciarius LI120/31, etc or ~ residens LI106/5 residentiary canon, one who fulfils the canonical requirement of residing in the chapter to carry out liturgical and other duties (also used of cathedral clergy in the post-Reformation Anglican church LI208/17); minor canonicus minor canon, a lesser canon chosen primarily to fulfil responsibilities in choir and usually not a full member of the college, at St Paul's the minor canons formed a separate college, after the Reformation the minor canons and their college remained at St Paul's EL20/28, etc; canonicus ... minor EL17/12, etc (paruus canonicus in same sense EL23/12); canonicus 2i ordinis literally canon of second rank, hence probably minor canon, a canon chosen primarily to fulfil responsibilities in choir and usually not a full member of the college OX70/23; 2. in the post-Reformation Anglican church, a cleric belonging to a cathedral chapter EK946/13, etc; OX89/36, etc 3. by extension of sense 1 a chorister chosen to play the part of a canon in a boy bishop observance SM236/7, etc; see also residenciarius, resideo

Cantabrigia, -e n f Cambridge: 1. name of a town, county or university C35/7, etc; IC124/33; OX306/33; Cantebregia C74/18; Cantebriga C73/34; Cantebrigia C34/1, etc; 2. name of an earldom EK59/11

Cantabrigiensis see Cantebrigiensis

cantaria, -e n f chantry, an altar or chapel established by an individual for the singing of masses for his own soul and those of his friends or family BR5/33; LI127/6, etc [ODCC]

cantaris, -is n m singer, chorister CR493/15

cantator, -oris n m singer, usually a choir singer LI343/5, etc; OX29/26, etc; SH76/33, SH77/20 (although the occurrence in SH10/24 is unlikely to bear that sense)

Cantebrigiensis, -e adj 1. of or pertaining to Cambridge C842/21, C125/22, etc; OX142/21; 2. f as sbst Cambridge C180/24, etc; Cantabrigiensis IC651/5

canticum, -i n nt secular song C44/37; song, whether secular or liturgical (eg, a canticle) OX45/36, etc; although the original CL sense of a sung passage in comedy was probably no longer meant, the negative connotations attached to comedy in the patristic period probably influenced the use of the word in the canons of the third council of Toledo (589) quoted by Gerald of Wales W395/27, or in this early saint's life WL78/28, etc

Cantianus, -a, -um adj of or pertaining to Kent, Kentish EK204/26

cantilena, -e n f popular or folk song, ballad, probably one having a refrain, often but not exclusively with negative associations (especially associated with dancing) C76/5; CH812/15 (quoted from a continental source); EL23/7; H188/21; OX4/6, etc; SH193/7; W395/20, etc; WL54/3, etc; sometimes associated with E 'carol' and 'balet'; CL meaning is 'refrain'; cantulena OX28/3 [see REED Herefordshire/Worcestershire LG cantilena and EG carrall, and OLD cantilena]

canto, -are, -aui, -atum v tr to sing, chant: sometimes the context is explicitly liturgical, eg, EK25/35; LI199/14; OX12/10; sometimes clearly secular, eg EK938/8, EK938/12; EL34/2; OX4/7, etc; WL12/9, etc; while other contexts remain ambiguous EK68/10, EK824/1; IC6/29; prp as sbst singer (here probably a choir singer) OX33/32

canto, -onis n m canton, district, here an area under the lordship of a Christmas prince IC424/22

cantor, -oris n m 1. literally a man or boy who sings, usually a chorister CR540/6; EK203/40; choir singer C166/20; chorister or choir singer OX33/37; 2. by extension cantor, chanter, leader of liturgical music in a collegiate or monastic choir, who also acted as an administrative officer in the chapter EK24/26; CR504/26; 3. perhaps sometimes a secular performer EK624/34; IC25/20

cantrix, -icis n f 1. literally a woman or girl who sings, hence either a female chorister or a female chanter; most likely referring to a member of a convent or other house for female religious CR540/6; 2. by extension chantress, leader of liturgical music in a convent choir, who also acted as an administrative officer OX3/16

Cantuaria, -e n f 1. Canterbury, name of a city and an archdiocese EK974/6, etc; OX42/20, etc; SX184/34; 2. Kent, name of a county IC201/7, etc

Cantuariensis, -e adj of or pertaining to Canterbury EK308/22, etc; OX3/6, etc; f sg as sbst Canterbury EK65/14, etc

cantulena see cantilena

cant(t)us, -us (in Oxford, once with a 2nd decl abl ending) n m 1. singing, here apparently raucous OX13/7, etc; SM237/23; 2. an instance of such singing, a song WL10/9, etc; cantus inhonestus a rude song OX40/23; cantus ritmicis a song in verse, rhythmic song OX7/20; 3. a sacred or secular song, particularly a piece of polyphonic music LI332/25, etc; ~ currens a current song, ie, a popular one LI332/23; 4. chant, (liturgical) singing, or the study thereof EK912/10; EL17/16; see also sc(h)ola; 5. by extension the blast of a trumpet or the like OX140/10

canuasium see caneuasium

Canutus, -i n m Canute (c 994--1035), king of England from 1014 OX315/19

capa, -e n f cope, a liturgical vestment also worn by as a choir habit EK25/14, etc; EL15/15; OX47/27 [ODCC]

capcio, -onis n f 1. the act of taking (something), here in idiom corporis capcio arrest EK902/30-1, etc; (without gen of specification) SH265/34, etc; by extension an arrest order CH778/16m, etc; WL194/27; 2. the act of holding (eg, a meeting or court sesion): dies capcionis ... inquisicionis the day of holding an inquest EL97/20

capella see cap(p)ella

capellanus, -i n m chaplain: 1. a priest serving or having charge of a chapel BR5/32, etc; CH716/26, etc; CR491/16; EK28/5, etc; IC103/34; OX6/38, etc; SH10/16, etc; SX3/11; W349/14; WL215/30; 2. a priest serving a religious guild LI24/35, etc; 3. referring to choir-boys chosen to take the part of chaplains in a boy-bishop observance EL17/20, etc

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